- High resveratrol levels in muscadine grapes.
- Huge anti-inflammatory potential.
- Large antioxidant value.
The muscadine grape possesses one of the highest antioxidant levels among fruits; yet, the effect of this fruit on mammalian metabolic systems has not received significant attention. To examine the antiinflammatory properties of the muscadine, grape skins were dried, pulverized, and extracted (10% w/v) with 50% ethanol.
The extract was then tested in two different assays: the release of superoxide in phorbol myristate acetate-activated neutrophils and the release of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] by lipopolysaccharide-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
The release of superoxide and cytokines was inhibited by increasing concentrations of the extract. A 1:100 dilution of the extract inhibited superoxide release by approximately 60% while the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta was reduced at a dilution of 1:200 by approximately 15 and 90%, respectively (all P < 0.05).
The inhibition pattern on the release of IL-6 was similar to that seen with TNF-alpha. In a related in vivo study, rats were fed a diet containing 5% (wt/wt) dried muscadine grape skins for 14 days and then were injected with carrageenan in the foot pad.
After 3 h, paw edema was measured and the rats on the grape skin diet had approximately 50% less paw edema than controls (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the muscadine grape skin powder possesses significant in vitro and in vivo antiinflammatory properties.